The Whispered were young individuals (16 to 17 years old) who have an innate knowledge of advanced mathematics, science, engineering, and physics capable of producing machines and devices beyond the scope of present-day human comprehension. This technology is called Black Technology. Their emergence in the mid-1980s led to the creation of the palladium reactor, ECS (Electronic Conceal System) camouflage, and most importantly, Arm Slave mechs. The devices they created led to an alteration of the world’s timeline and the continuation of the Cold War. Because of the military capabilities of the Whispered, they are sought by any national and multi-national forces aware of their existence. Two non-state extralegal organizations appear to have discovered and acquired the most Whispereds: the Western-leaning Mithril and Communist-allied Amalgam.
Although the possession of even a single Whispered would provide such organizations with increased advancements in military technology, each individual Whispered's abilities are specialized in one area -- while one may possess inherent knowledge in submarine technology, another will be far more knowledgeable with the Lambda Driver. Thus, Whispereds such as Kaname Chidori are acquired and analyzed in order to determine in which area they specialize.
However Kaname is the keystone, all the knowledge flows through her from another whispered known as Sofia and then out to the other Whispered. So, essentially, while most Whispered have skill specialties, it is feasible that Kaname has access to just about everything of the Black Technologies. Also, the fact that she shows understanding of the demi-gods (established before I knew the secret of the Whispered) it is likely that in the future at some time that Gods, Humans and Demons interact on a more common level.
Besides possessing vast stores of incredible knowledge, Whispereds are also capable of telepathic “resonance” with other Whispereds. They can communicate over great distances with one another; a killed Whispered can even resonate with another Whispered for a short period after death. However, a danger lies in this resonance -- if two or more Whispereds resonate too long or too deeply, the individual personalities will merge and become inseparable. (Tessa Testarossa used the metaphor of adding milk to a cup of tea.)
The reason they are called “Whispered” -- or, “those who hear Whispers” -- is that the knowledge is transferred to them in a way that feels like they’re being whispered to from some faraway place by innumerable unidentified voices. Sometimes the Whispers can violently overtake a Whispered and lead to a breakdown.
The Whispered seem to be a specialized sort of seer, a conduit to future technologies. Tessa Testarossa believes Whispereds are “terminals” to the future, receiving Black Technology from an unknown source that desired to alter the history of the world from what it is in our current world, to a world where the Cold War remains and wars between the superpowers are ongoing.
As Ainur they have another resource, but it's not one to be using too much, if at all. They can borrow abilities from others, such as when Kaname Chidori borrowed Satomi Eija's 'death sight'. Though it is more like comparing notes.
Before that date, Soviet scientists set up a secret city, designated "Yamsk 11," to develop advanced technology for the Cold War. Bringing scientists from all over the Eastern Bloc and around the world together, they set out to work on an "Omni-sphere," a techno-mental device that would be able to cut through space and time and see into the future. It would also be able to control the minds of others. The systems utilizing the Omni-sphere were designated as "Transfer and Response Omni Sphere" (TAROS).
TAROS was created by Professor Dimitri Varov by connecting thousands of dolphins' brains together. On December 24, 1981 they managed get the TAROS working; however, there was an accident and the machine went out of control. Waves of TAROS particles erupted from the facility. Two waves were particularly powerful:
Iota particles / Iota wave : These particles are still emanating out of the facility at Yamsk 11, but dissipate over distance. They caused the “mental pollution” of the people in Yamsk 11 and led them to kill each other and destroy the complex. Anyone approaching the core of the abandoned complex and the source of the Iota particles will be struck with constant and overpowering sensations of déjà vu and nausea.
Tau particles / Tau wave : This wave dissipated quickly, but not over distance, hence it spread all over the world. The Tau wave had no effect on normal people, but led to creation of the Whispered –- children born on December 24, 1981 (1984 in the anime) in a three minute interval after 11:50 GMT. (Kaname Chidori was born at 20:50 Tokyo time, which was 11:50 GMT.) Tessa Testarossa theorized that, according to the explanation of psychologist Alice Miller, the moment a newborn baby is born there is special activity in the basal ganglia and occipital lobe, and the Tau wave's impact at that moment of mental activation connected those newborns to the Omni-sphere.
The main purpose of Project Ainur was protecting the individuality of the Whispered while giving them a constant presence in the Whispers.
It has to do with the DNA code. It's coded to prevent accidental mutation so that the protections on their minds never break down. As a side-effect, this also prevents the natural deterioration that results in aging.
The primary benefits of Project Ainur is that a recipient Whispered doesn't have to worry about losing their individuality to Resonance ever again. The modifications basically act like a psychic filter, letting some information through, but keeping some out. Basically they gave themselves a firewall which doesn’t limit their ability to develop technologies. Actually, it becomes much easier to find the information one wants when they want it without extraneous information. While this limits the chances for a spontaneous realization, it makes the ability more reliable.