Form Refinement is the ability to enhance the body creating alien structures and chemicals within it causing the manifestation of random powers of an extraordinary nature.
The abilities of Squad Yankee member Jinx comes from what is termed as a metagene. A dormant gene exists in the human species of her universe as a recessive trait that causes a spontaneous outburst of “mutagenic” properties that only some individuals manifest around the time of puberty. Millions of seemingly ordinary humans carry this gene within their make-up and only under extraordinary combinations of said gene; borrowed from two like “carrier” parents does the potential for a mutant offspring result. Sometimes the genes became active during puberty but often they lay dormant for years without being realized as fully active, only to be “sparked” into life when the individual is subject to a moment of crisis. In the end the result is the same, the “gene packages” goes “active” and causes a spontaneous transformation that alters the molecular structure of the host and transforms them into an “evolved” state of being that represents an entirely new form of humanity.
The abilities granted by the presence of this gene can be minuscule to god-like. However these abilities are not necessarily genetically encoded. Fundamentally, all meta human powers can be regarded as simply different manifestations of the same base ability. That ability is the possession and unconscious manipulation of the biology-altering abilities of psionics that locks into a particular type of superhuman ability upon activation.
The "gene packages" that meta humans possess is a DNA complex that causes them to have certain anatomical characteristics in their brains that humans don't have. humans gain several new neurotransmitters, unique neural wiring, and wholly new organelles in the neurons. This special neuroanatomy causes the brain to create a special psionic field that exist as a semi-sentient energy-based lifeform. The lifeform takes form as an inconspicuous energy pattern linked to the natural ki flow of a meta humans body. Since the ki permeates a meta human’s entire body, it innately possesses an intrinsic understanding of all aspects of physiology (including DNA) to a degree that is beyond human comprehension. The semi-sentience of the ki is tied into a meta humans own consciousness and as a result, its actions are based on the meta humans subconscious will and even biofeedback caused by the meta humans current environment. Because of this connection, at some point during a meta human's puberty (although for some rare cases, it is while in the womb), the ki takes signals from the meta human's emotional/psychological state, as well as their individual genetic structure, stress hormones, and immune system messengers to modify the meta human's physiology in way that will imbue them with a superhuman ability that might be useful to that particular meta human at the time of manifestation. This means that the environment (both natural and social) and the thoughts/psychological state of a meta human at the time of manifestation have a direct and formative impact on what type of ability will be developed.
The first manifestations of these abilities are often triggered by a period of heightened emotional stress. This also the reason meta humans seem to have an easier time mastering the esoteric arts.
There is a way to imitate this function through conscious molecular control. It turns out that the founder of Special Lieutenant Saotome’s discipline of Musubetsu Kakuto
fighting had often displayed a soft touch for the plight of children, but his remedy for their conditions was often a cure just as bad as the disease as he could twist their energy patterns into forms that made them living weapons but denied them any chance of a "normal" lifestyle. This is referred to as Imprinting and it’s main problem is that unlike with the metagene conscious psychic molecular control doesn’t seem to be self containing. What it does is genetically encode a technique onto a subject. The energy pattern of the technique permeates the subject’s entire body inserting into their DNA triggering a profound and significant change in the genetic expression of their entire body. However since the body is forcibly changed it adapts itself to be able to greater handle these changes.
For example Kurumi Tendo is the victim of some heavy-handed manipulation of her Chi-Centers that accelerates her cellular functions drastically raising her body heat which she is able to channel through mediums as well as her granting her levels of speed similar to those of Special lieutenant Mint. Unfortunately in order to sustain these abilities her body’s metabolism has been risen to similar levels, her stomach literally vaporizes whatever food she consumes and converts it to raw elements, giving her an explosive energy level. Just nailing her to the floor would be a difficult enough accomplishment as she literally has trouble standing still and will often fidget when excited, much though she has trained hard in meditative techniques in order to control this unfortunate condition.
Her older sister Natsume has also been given the same treatment, but not to the same degree as her little sister. Natsume has the psionic ability of Thermokinesis. She is able to lower her external and internal body temperature, projecting intense coldness from her body. Like any normal human being's, the nerve centers for regulating Iceman's body temperature are found in the part of the brain called the hypothalamus. However, Happosai’s manipulation overroad her hypothalamus allowing her to telekinetically lower the temperature of her body. This ability converts the latent thermal energies (refered to as “cold Chi) in and around her body which she is able to project outward. A related mutation has rendered her body tissues to the cold of whatever environment was around her. Unfortunately like with her sister this ability comes with a number of negative consequences. Natsume’s body and mental temperatures are constantly out of balance causing her to appear cold and indifferent at times. She needs frequent contact with Kurumi in order to keep herself in balance, kind of a yin-yang equation.
The key to advancing the Imprinting technique into a viable substitution for the meta gene lies in Project Kataphract and Project Souhou or specifically the runes that make up the array. The array used in Form Refinement is similar to the circle used in Project Souhou in that it is used to circulate the energy used in a transmutation. However, unlike the circle, the runes are not confined to the circumference of the circle and may use the circle only as a small aspect of their function. In fact it mainly uses the elliptical concepts of Project Kataphract to bring about the circulation or release of the energies involved. Great strides in research have been made by mixing these runes together to augment their power, converge their results and create entirely new pathways of utilization. Instead of metabolizing the energy pattern of a specific technique onto the body like with the metagene the abilities granted by Form Refinement are always linked to its wielder's skills and personality.
Also unlike with Meta Humans this power calls upon its wielder's ki (life energy) and needs a difficult and extremely rigorous training to be fully mastered. Using it carelessly and without proper training would consume its wielder's ki; and if someone were to use an untrained ability continuously his/her ki would end up depleted, leading to his/her death. Basically it is less like the abilities of the various rouge psychics and more like the abilities granted to soldiers upon joining X-COM which are then trained and refined to perfection. Essentially Form Refinement eliminates the first step of Molecular Control. The martial artist of squads Juliet and trained for years to be able to utilize their esoteric arts which they them master to the point of perfection and gains from it immense might and beyond-human fighting abilities. Form Refinement grants that ability without the need of the initial training. However it is still the job of the bearer master both the ability and esoteric arts witch powers it.